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KITAB, QURAN & ARABIC

CHAPTER 1     KITAB, QURAN & ARABIC –     IS "ARABIC" THE NAME OF A LANGUAGE OF MIDDLE EAST AND "QURAN&quo...

Friday, 12 January 2018

SURAH 4 AN-NISA [1-10]



SURAH 4 AN-NISA سورة النساء - An Urges 

The topic of Nisa is a very important, and it is the most wrongly represented word of the book Quran. The entire understanding of the word nisa is based on wrong premises. The book Quran is not for social or cultural issues relating to man and woman. Social issues are to be solved by various brains of the societies in which one lives. Common sense and circumstances of individuals are considered while dealing with issues like marriage, divorce, law of inheritance or other civil and criminal laws. We cannot have a blanket decree for such matters from a single book.

A point to be noted that the context of the surah has been grossly misconceived and misrepresented in a orchestrated manner where the eminent scholars have unanimously tried to substitute the word nisa for women and to justify that theme they translated the word Yatama [orphans] as “orphan girls” or “widows” only because the word Nisa as women is used in that context. The meanings of many versatile and vibrant Arabic words were given tailor-made meanings just to keep the meaning of Nisa as women alive in the mind of the readers. The words which mainly suffered due to this high handedness are Nisa, Rajul, Arḥāma, Yatama, Amwālahum, Nikah... and subsequently the entire message of the Noble Quran got distorted.


Nisa is a key term of the book Quran, but sadly it is the most misunderstood one. The learned translators and interpreters have made a big mistake in choosing its root word, first in the influence of Shaan-e-Nuzool then under the modern usage of the language. Actually the root word of Nisa is ن س ا but our translators have taken it as ن س و – Here is the root of the entire problem and we cannot solve the problem in the same way or method that we have initially created it.


The basic meaning of the root word نسو / نسى according to William lane lexicon is to forget or to dismiss it from mind. Gradually we were made to believe the meaning of nisa as women or a weaker segment of the society, thanks to the evolution of language. Subsequently we have built around on our assumed meaning the entire interpretation just to prove or validate the meaning of Nisa as women, although classical Arabic dictionaries does not support this meaning.


The root word which I have taken for Nisa is ن س ا / نسا which means urge, desire, drove… The majority will not support this optional view as it is difficult for them to adjust to this new meaning with the context and theme of the book Quran because they already have so called established or popular meaning of Nisa as woman established in their mind.


If we want to take any optional meaning or a new root word from an already established or popular one, we have to reset or reformat the entire theme of the Quran’s translation. By doing this the truncated image of woman shown by the different translations would disappear. But we are so used to believe women as impure, weak, forgetful, farmland and can be beaten any time if not obedient… that we accept or tolerate such unjustified interpretation. Why we digest such type of translations because it supports the established and popular belief that women are evil but we forget that women means our mother, sister, daughter and wife.


النساء The urges - An-Nisa = The root word is noon-seen-alif  means urge, desire - I have no idea why all scholars ignore this root word. The popular root word of nisa is noon-seen-waw. Please check the basic meaning of Nisa in Edward William Lexicon page no 2785 for the basic meaning of nisa - urge - Staff or stick with which cattle's or beasts are driven is called منساة - Quran 34:14 - مِنسَأَتَهُ - his stick/staff; منساة is one of the derivative of nisa [نسا]. Al-Nisa means specific urge of an individual. When I inquired the reason for ignoring ن س ا as the root word of نِسَاءً they would simply defend by saying it is against the convention, no valid reason was given.

Any word in Arabic pronounced in an elongated manner with added maddah on top of Alif [(ألف مدة) ( آ )] it indicates the sense of eternity, ceaselessly, prolong, continuity, longevity, increase etc. The word Nisa (نِسَاءً) is pronounced elongated in Arabic. These elongated pronounced words not only stretches the sound of the letter but also carries the eternal sense along with its own meaning, like the word maa and samaa (السَّمَاءِ) (الْمَاءُ), its sound is stretched with maddah over Alif while pronouncing. The meaning of الْمَاءُ  is water / specific thoughts  - the meaning of السَّمَاءِ is " the higher consciousness / the sky," both these words have a sense of eternity in it.


When we take the root Nun-Sin-Alif (ن-س-أ) it means Urge and it makes sense as per the rule of Arabic phonetics and lexicon. The word Nisa is an urge which never dies, it is always present in man until they die but the urge continues to live, these nuances of the language justifies the meaning of nisa as urge as well. 


Suppose we take the popular root-Nun-Sin-Waw (ن-س-و) for Nisa. The meaning of nisa is - to forgot or dismissed from the mind, and the irony is according to classical Arabic it does not even mean "women" or "weaker segment of the society" as popularly propagated. But the eminent translators insist on taking the meaning of Nisa as women, daughters, wives completely against the lexicon meaning - However according to Modern Standard Arabic it also signifies women but remember the language of Quran is not in MSA but Old Arabic.

NISA if understood in the right perspective can open up many avenues of human psychology [Nafsiyat]
[4:1] [6:98] [7:189] on which our existence is based. That would help us in understanding the book Quran as well and our mental mechanism in a much better way. I understand Quran as a book of psychology and all my interpretation of the Quran is based in that context only. Nisa [Urge] is a driving force of man's life, and we have to be very careful with this driving force reckoned as our urge [Nisa]. In Quranic context An-Nisa is most often describe as an utmost urge which seeks to gain knowledge because the word nisa is connected with the parable of Firaun who use to kill our basic constitution and keep our urges of knowledge [Nisa] alive. Bani Israel means who travels by mind [thinkers] and their urge to seek knowledge is enslaved to  Firaun [fear / arrogance]  Second example is Marium who is described as nisa [urge]; is a keen seeker of knowledge thus her status is above all knowledgeable [Aalameen] [3:42]. In the parable of Marium when she became pregnant with knowledge she gave birth to the word from Allah who is identified as Isa Masih [3:45], a Saviour. Al-Quran has dedicated a entire chapter of 176 verses on the topic of Nisa [urge]. AL with nisa indicates specific urges and not specific women.


Basically the word nisa means an impulse, a wish or an urge particularly a prolonged one. Nisa can be considered as a normal and fundamental part of human thought processes, but also one that can become problematic, as in a condition like obsessive-compulsive disorder borderline personality disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Let us see how our traditional translators made the mockery of the message of the Quran by interpreting the meaning of nisa as women, wives, females, daughters and ladies. The meaning of nisa is totally twisted according to their own whims and fancy, no consideration is given to classical Arabic lexicons while interpreting this important word. Their belief or limited understanding overcame the power of reasoning. The meaning is distorted corresponding to their preconceived understanding of the word. Some examples: Verse 2:187 does not talk about having sex with our wives in the night of fasting - but about relieving our urges. Verse 2:222 does not talk about menstruating women - but it talks about the strong flow of of urges. Verse 2:223 does not talk about having sex with the women the way we want - but it discusses that our urges are like our tilth, we can grow it the way we desire. This is how we are made to think about our women folks through the bogus interpretation of the Majestic Quran.


The entire traditional translation of surah An-Nisa is based on male chauvinism which degrades female folks. In traditional version of surah 4:3 man is allowed to keep four wives. Again according to traditional translation in verse 4:8 a strange instruction is given that is to share the part of your inherited wealth with the poor and orphan relatives present during the time of division. I have not seen in my life people following this instruction instead I have seen people encroach upon others wealth and property. Then again in verse 4:11/176 the traditional interpretation is biased against women folks as every male gets twice as much of the female in the inheritance. In 4:15 the traditional translation of the Quran says confine the women in the house until death if you find lewdness in them. In verse 4:24 one can marry women slaves / war captives. In verse 4:34 recommends wife beating if they disobey. I cannot be a part of such misguided interpretations which inculcate in man to unjustly dominate their women folks and ill treat them. If we continue to take the meaning of nisa as women the book Quran will always be accused of being unjust to women and blunder will continue to happen while interpreting the Quran. If the chapter of Nisa is about women it should be about women and their problems, why marriage and law of inheritance is discussed here and that too are tilted against women folks?



How can any sensible person accept such translations which subjugate and humiliate the weaker sex in such manner? I am a father of daughters, I am a brother of my sisters, I am son of my mother, I am husband of my wife. I cannot accept such translations which degrade women folks. I am 100% sure this is not the original message of the Noble Quran and I have nothing to do with such translations as such translations degrade the message and shows the noble Quran in poor light.


Anyways the title of the above surah is Nisa and the topic and the central theme of the surah should be about Nisa [Urge]. But because of the poor understanding of the subject all the translators are connecting this surah either to laws of inheritance favorable to males or how to marry and control females.  

The chapter is actually addressed to the agitated minds [يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ] - The entire chapter has only one theme and that is about Nisa [Urge], and how one has to be cautious about our urges [nisa] so that we can serve our own Consciousness [Rabb] in a better way. The character of the urge is to force or compel the agitated mind to evolve. The purpose of life is the evolution of our consciousness. And without the urge to learn, seek information and convert them into knowledge one cannot evolve. Urge for knowledge is key to evolution. Those who are content with what they know cannot evolve. Without the strength of self sustaining inner dynamics [Rijal] of support one cannot achieve the fulfillment of our urges. Nisa and Rijal are companions of each other and they have been evolved from single psychic [Nafs e Wahidah] our emotional entity. These urges [nisa] and self determination forces or one who carry his / her own weight [rijaal] are necessary ingredients of life, without which no one can drive the wheel of their lives. But we must be careful about them as they can be dangerous if not tackled properly.


INTERPRETATION OF SURAH AN-NISA 1-10 verse:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم 



يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا 

4:1 O agitated mind/body/soul [النَّاسُ] be cautious/thoughtful/mindful of your own Consciousness (Rabb), who has evolved you from a process of single psyche and evolved from it, its mate [Jannah] and spread from it many strong self sustaining programmes [Rijal] and urges [Nisa] so be careful / cautious / thoughtful of your own Allah [system of Consciousness] through whom you reciprocate with it [to learn] which means the self impregnation of knowledge [wal-arḥāma], indeed you are under a Watchful System.




The verse begins by addressing يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ [agitated mind/body/soul], in contrast to other verses which address specific characters among mankind (e.g.,‟O you who believe”,‟O men of Faith”,‟O Bani Israel”, ‟O men of understanding”,‟O people of the book” etc.). Certainly those verses that address specific characteristics of human beings also carry advice related to those characters and lessons for those outside these characters. The book Quran does not choose words randomly, but rather chooses in order to disclose specific meanings and to indicate specific importance. What follows then, in this verse, is a discourse which affects all human beings - the surah   provides information about human psyche / nature and the human condition in general, and which provides principles that can be applied to humanity in general. As [النَّاسُ] is plural noun it is address to mind/body/soul/spirit.



By addressing agitated mind/body/soul/spirit, the Quran is trying to explain how our psyche [nafs] is thirsty for more knowledge. Our mind evolves or run on our urges [Nisa]. So the Quran instruct us to be cautious of our Consciousness as our evolution depends upon the quality of urges we choose or entertain.


To support our urges to reach its aspiration we need to have a strong self sustaining inner dynamics or self determination which works on its own abi lities [Rijal]. All agitated minds have the same common psyche [Nafs], that's why it is called Nafs e Wahidah [single process of psyche]. Rijal is our own self sustaining dynamics and Nisa are urge which forces or drives us. Urge [Nisa] would just be just a wish without the presence of self sustaining dynamics or strong determination [Rijal] to complete and fulfill it.  


النَّاسُ - Agitation, wavering - See Edward William lexicon page no 2866 for exact meaning

اتَّقُواْ - second person masculine plural (form VIII) imperative verb
 نَّفْسٍ - Psyche, soul, self ...

زَوْجَهَا - Who is the companion of nafs / Adam? Refer 2:35And We said, "O Adam, calm down, you and your pair Al-Jannah [the process of hidden knowledge underneath which rivers of enlightenment flow [Nahr] - the hidden knowledge is Jannah the real mate or companion of our nafs referred as zauj] and gather intelligence from it freely whenever you desire. But do not come near such process of disagreement / differences, lest you be from the unjust [or in darkness]."

 رِجَالاً - Rijal is an innate self sustaining dynamics or self determination that can independently support our urges to attain its aspirations. Without rijal we cannot fulfill our urges. Rijal is a sustaining mechanism which carries the urges on its own strength to fulfill its goal. Without rijal our urges would be like a dream with no physical reality. Please understand the basic lexicon meaning of رجل very carefully - went on foot by himself for the purpose of accomplishing the object of his want, Rijal is one who lift its own weight without riding on any beast or taking help of anyone. The essence of rijal is that what is done on its own strength or own determination alone, independent of others. In the above Quranic context rijaal is a part of our psyche [nafs] which supports, strengthens, sustains, helps our mind independently to lift any stress, load arises due to our aspirations, desire or urges [nisa].


وَالْأَرْحَامَ  - wal-arḥāma - Accusative masculine plural noun - Rehman is an inherent mechanism which impregnate knowledge [Allamal Quran] connected to the womb / gut of agitated mind/body/soul. This womb of our consciousness nourishes the knowledge and produces the ties of relationship since we are in the womb of Mother Nature. The knowledge which softens or inclines the heart towards mercy is Rehmat & Rahim. 


4:2 وَآتُواْ الْيَتَامَى أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَلاَ تَتَبَدَّلُواْ الْخَبِيثَ بِالطَّيِّبِ وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَى أَمْوَالِكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا

And bring forth into existence the isolated/unmatched/unique urges [al-yatāmā] their due inclinations [أَمْوَالَهُمْ] and don't convert the low grade urges with the pleasant urges. And do not transmit intellectual [تَأْكُلُواْ] curiosity towards their inclination in lieu with your own inclination. Indeed, that would be a great grief.

The surah is about Nisa [Urges] and not about orphans so obviously the context would be about urges and not about the orphans. There are many free / random / urges [lust, greed, addiction, liberty] which forces us to surrender ourselves to its influence and consumes all our inclination and intellectual curiosity towards it. Giving unnecessary attention to wrong urges can occupy too much of our intellectual faculty plus it consumes too much energy and time. And this unnecessary waste of precious time can cause us great grief. So don't let the good urges suffer due to wrong or immoral urges. This is the warning we get from the above verse.

[الْيَتَامَى are the confuse or obscure state of urges, untouched, isolated, still not married or engaged with our intellectual curiosity]

تَأْكُلُواْ Exercising intellectual curiosity [It is an inner search to verify facts, if you discover the facts it will transmit it to your brain which will set your mind free, something which your system can digest] -The intellectually curious person has a deep and persistent desire to know. [اكيل means intelligent, one of the derivative of كلو]

أَمْوَالَهُمْ - Root word is مال [inclination] and not مول [wealth] as generally taken by the traditionalists. مال / ميل means inclination, leaning... 

آتُواْ - form iv verb 

4:3 وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلاَّ تُقْسِطُواْ فِي الْيَتَامَى فَانكِحُواْ مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ مَثْنَى وَثُلاَثَ وَرُبَاعَ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلاَّ تَعْدِلُواْ فَوَاحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ذَلِكَ أَدْنَى أَلاَّ تَعُولُواْ


If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly to yourself, concerning the unmatched / unique / isolated urges, then merge [fa-inkiḥū]what seems suitable from the urges [nisa] of your choice, two or three or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or which you can control, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice to you.

Multitasking reduces your efficiency and performance because your brain can only focus on one thing or can entertain one urge at a time. When you try to do more than two things at a time, your brain lacks the capacity to perform all tasks with equal justice. This is what the above verse is trying to  emphasize. You may be having too many aspirations or urges [Nisa] but you won't be able to do justice with them if you marry/entertain them all so focusing on only one urge is recommended.


تُقْسِطُو - you will be able to do justice to yourself - 2nd person masculine plural (form IV) imperfect verb, subjunctive mood

4:4 وَآتُواْ النِّسَاءَ صَدُقَاتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً فَإِن طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَن شَيْءٍ مِّنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ هَنِيئًا مَّرِيئًا


And bring forth the specific urges [nisa] their due sincerity, a matter of faith [niḥ'latan]; then if they are pleasant, regarding any admiration from it on her own, then exercise its intellectual curiosity without hesitation.


One is not free or liberated until he gives sincere attention to its urge. Urges are pollinators of our soul / nafs then if you find in them any admiration use your intellectual curiosity.

آتُواْ - form iv verb 


4:5 وَلاَ تُؤْتُواْ السُّفَهَاءَ أَمْوَالَكُمُ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَاماً وَارْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَاكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُواْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفًا

And do not bring forth into existence the foolish urges [the urges which is unrealistic] your inclination [أَمْوَالَكُمُ] which Allah [system of consciousness] made for you forever, and nourish them within it and enrich them and converse for them a comment which is perceivable / identifiable.

If we give more inclination or hold on to an urges which are unrealistic it will only create sufferings. That unrealistic urge would unnecessary consume our precious time and energy although they are established in us by the system of consciousness [Allah]. So we cannot overlook them but we should understand them first by conversing with them with wisdom to overcome them. The author of the book wants us that we should understand our urges before giving them our time and energy. Such urges are unproductive because they won't yield any positive result.

 تُؤْتُواْ - form iv 

4:6 وَابْتَلُواْ الْيَتَامَى حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغُواْ النِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ آنَسْتُم مِّنْهُمْ رُشْدًا فَادْفَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَلاَ تَأْكُلُوهَا إِسْرَافًا وَبِدَارًا أَن يَكْبَرُواْ وَمَن كَانَ غَنِيًّا فَلْيَسْتَعْفِفْ وَمَن كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ فَإِذَا دَفَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فَأَشْهِدُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ حَسِيبًا


And become acquainted with the unmatched / unique urges until when they reached the state of conceiving [a plan or idea merge with the mind - Al-Nikah], so if you feel right sense of amicability from them, then deliver towards them their due inclinations and do not transmit intellectual curiosity [تَأْكُلُو] excessively and let it attain maturity that they will grow, and whoever possess substantial, then he [an-naas] should remain modest and whoever is in need [to know], then let them transmit their intellectual curiosity with recognition, then if you deliver towards them their inclinations, then they testified upon themselves and (it is) enough with Allah [system of consciousness] as a Reckoner.

One should become acquainted with the free / random urges [al-yatama], let them grow on their own towards their realization [Al-Nikah]. There is no shortcut to maturity. Don't push or make haste towards them let them grow on their own towards their full growth. Don't incline or give too much attention to them, let them recognize their capacity, eligibility, interest and let them testify / merge with your system of consciousness. The System of Consciousness is the best Accountant. 

ابْتَلُواْ - form viii verb
آنَسْتُم - form iv verb
فَأَشْهِدُواْ - form iv

4:7 لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصيِبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا

Surely the self sustaining dynamics [Rijal] is a kind of modulator from what is remained from the development [of the urges] of the closest [urge], and for the urges has a modulation role from what is left from the development [of the urges] of the closest [urges], from what shortened from it or increased, a modulation specified / stipulated.


It is very important to know the role of rijaal and why I termed it as self sustaining dynamics. Rijaal is a source where development our urges or our aspirations takes place. Our aspiration or urges cannot develop without the regulation of rijaal present in our system. Without rijaal our aspirations are without direction and are useless. Rijaal is a modulator [one who setup or rear] which fine tune our urges so that it can grow to its goal. The basic meaning of رجل is a journey taken on foot without the help of any beast or vehicle. For the purpose of accomplishing the task /desire when taken on its own strength and preparedness is termed as Rijaal. Not relying on outside source just on our inbuilt strength, capacity or talent is the quality of Rajul. ارتجل  is a person who gives extemporized speech [without preparing beforehand]. A lonely man is called مرتجل - in short one who is on his own strength.

 نَصيِبٌ - set up to show the way, erect, rear, modulate, regulate, - منصوب is the object or set up which shows the way or direction, a sign - نصب signifies a goal or a limit setup, it signifies idol - نصيب also means tank, container or portion, share.. نصاب - origin, source or a place where thing grows

الْوَالِدَانِ - One who develops, bring forth, delivers like parents do..



4:8 وَإِذَا حَضَرَ الْقِسْمَةَ أُوْلُواْ الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينُ فَارْزُقُوهُم مِّنْهُ وَقُولُواْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفًا


And when occurred in the mind the process of sorting, the foremost will be the dearest urge than the free / random one and the standstill one, make provision for them from it, and talk to them words which is perceivable.


Here the orders of priority of urges are given. Self talking is very important, the practice of talking to oneself mentally brings out positive solution.


4:9 وَلْيَخْشَ الَّذِينَ لَوْ تَرَكُواْ مِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّةً ضِعَافًا خَافُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَلْيَتَّقُوا اللّهَ وَلْيَقُولُواْ قَوْلاً سَدِيدًا

And those who have fear [in their mind], even though they left from following them 
scattered traces, they would be afraid because of them, but let them be cautious system of consciousness [Allah], and communicate words/quotes hitting the mark.

Those who are apprehensive that by leaving behind their urges their scattered litter would follow or haunt them all their life. They should not be afraid of that but they should consult within them which will subdue them.

4:10 إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَى ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا

Indeed those who transmit intellectual curiosity towards the inclination of the free / random urges unjustly, indeed they consume intellectual curiosity ignited deeply in their mentality, and they will continuously roast/suffer/burn (from) inflame provocation.

Sincerity is the key to everything. Injustice or suppressing your obscure urges may land you in trouble. You may be grief stricken all your life for not giving them their right due. Right urges are key to development and success.








TO BE CONTINUE...

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